CARE is committed to being “ready” when it comes to making breakthroughs for women and girls in its monetary intervention, and to involve other stakeholders on the gender aspects of TMs. Building on this commitment, CARE commissioned a study on Gender-Sensitive Monetary Transfers from its own participants. The study aimed to include:
■ The extent to which women, men, boys, and girls are involved in the design of TM programs and the implications of this involvement.
■ The possibility that TM promote positive and enduring gender roles and relationships that contribute to gender equity
■ Gender-related barriers and risks associated with TM collection and receipt, including social and cultural attitudes and the risks of protection
This study draws directly on the experience of people affected by a crisis in a varied operational environment – Haiti, Jordan, Malawi, Niger and the Philippines. The priority was to hear the project participants themselves and 380 women and men took part in group discussions, stories and individual interviews. Country-level research was complemented by a global literature review and semi-structured interviews with CARE staff.
Findings from the study
DEFINING WHAT IS SPECIFIC TO GENDER
In the course of the discussions, a set of characteristics of gender-specific TM were defined:
■ Designed to meet the unique needs and skills of women, men and women men, boys, girls and other sexes;
■ Developed in a way that does not expose beneficiaries to harm; and
■ Drawing on an Understanding of Social Norms.
INCORPORATING GENDER IN THE CONCEPT OF MONETARY TRANFERTS (TM)
The Involvement of Women in Design TMs were different in the study countries. Participation has been limited in some places, while in others, such as a program in the Philippines, monetary intervention has been designed with a specific gender perspective, thus ensuring that households have the option of deciding which family member should be involved. receive the money, the location of payment points and / or distribution sites, and the best times of the day for funds to be available.
In places where women were less involved in The crisis-affected populations stressed that they were less aware of the role they could play in decision-making at the household and community levels once the transfer was made. In some cases this has led to difficulties in collecting their transfers due to the location of payment points and / or distribution sites, delivery times and transfer mechanisms.
The lack of Involvement of affected communities, especially women, in the design process has highlighted the need to systematically include strong gender analysis as an integral part of the needs analysis, both at the beginning of TM implementation during this one. Without this, a number of threats to gender-sensitive TMs – and in particular TMs that take into account the specific needs and capacities of women – are likely to remain. This study revealed that these threats may exist both outside the household, such as safety and security issues for women when collecting their transfers, but also at home, where the risks of tension and may be increased when women are targeted as beneficiaries.
POSSIBILITIES OF PROMOTING POSITIVE AND SUSTAINABLE ROLES AND RELATIONSHIPS THROUGH TM
In line with findings In previous studies, this study found that to promote more positive and sustainable gender roles and relationships, as well as transformative relationships, TMs need to be combined with complementary interventions – the Cash Plus approach, for example. Beneficiaries from all the countries covered by the study indicated that health care, training, skills development and provision of essential services (such as legal assistance and financial counseling) were important complementary interventions, that could be linked via Cash Plus. The approach should target women and men at both the household and community levels.
The Philippines and Jordan gave examples of the adoption of the Cash Plus approach. In the Philippines, briefings on gender equity, financial management training, child protection, resilience building, hygiene and sanitation were offered to some beneficiaries in addition to their TM Respondents confirmed that this has resulted in longer-term changes beyond the period of monetary intervention and related to improved household spending decisions. improved skills in budgeting and savings, increased resilience and enhanced livelihood development. In Jordan, a case management approach was adopted in which all TM beneficiaries were referred for additional services including psychosocial support, education services, legal and health services, and vocational training. The provision of livelihood support was also an important element of Jordan's approach to Cash Plus.
In some localities, Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLAs) provided a complementary form support for women receiving TMs. In Haiti, Malawi and Niger, some women have used some of the transfers to contribute to and participate in VSLA, which not only has an immediate impact on increasing women's participation in financial decision-making at the level of women. household, but has also strengthened the long-term financial management skills and capabilities resulting from the training received by these groups. Women involved in VSLAs highlighted the role of these groups – even in humanitarian response environments – just as important as they provided safe spaces for women to meet and strengthened women's voice at the grassroots level. The study also found that the inclusion of men in Cash Plus, such as gender equity training and awareness sessions, was also important to improve the financial management skills of participants.
important to encourage positive changes in attitudes regarding the role of women, including in financial decision-making.
GENDER-RELATED PROTECTIVE MEASURES AND PROBLEMS
Previous research has shown that gender-sensitive monetary intervention can have positive protection outcomes. However, a number of gender-based protection risks associated with TM may result in gender-based violence (GBV). When these risks exist, they prevent women (and sometimes others) from safely accessing and using their transfers.
This study revealed that key issues related to TM and gender protection , some of which are interdependent, focus on: collection sites and access to TMs; Safe and secure delivery mechanisms; Communication mechanisms adapted to women; Intra-household tension; Tension at the community level; and Protection Against Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PEAS)
In all survey countries, interviewees highlighted concerns about women's ability to physically collect their transfers. This was often related to the distance they had to travel, and women emphasized their fear of being stolen on their way home, especially when financial service providers arrived late at payment points. This fear of attacks on the way to or from the collection points was compounded by concerns that time away from home prevented these women from performing the household duties for which they were responsible.
Among the other concerns of women in security, which prevents easy access to TMs – many of which have also been reported to be relevant to older people and people with disabilities – include lack of knowledge and understanding of technology, illiteracy, language barriers and lack of required documentation. The problems of easy access to trans- fers may be linked to an incentive for the humanitarian sector to use a single TM distribution system in many places. While this approach has obvious benefits in terms of cost-effectiveness, the use of a single delivery system may also exclude some of the people most in need of assistance. This highlights the need for aid agencies to garner support from donors to put in place mechanisms for registering the beneficiaries of adaptive TMs and to use delivery systems that are responsive to the diverse and specific needs of women, women and children. girls, men and boys of all ages and abilities. This is essential if the humanitarian community really wants to provide impartial and accountable monetary intervention to respond to different vulnerabilities and capacities rather than neglecting these diverse needs in the pursuit of profitability.
It was also found that the reception TMs by women create tension within the household and the community in some countries, but not in all the countries studied. In Jordan, women said that receiving monetary intervention increased tensions within the household in making financial decisions. In Niger, the opposite is true, perhaps because it is already customary for women to manage money and participate in financial decision-making in Niger, while in Jordan it is is more nuanced, with responsibility for household financial decisions varying across households. In Malawi, some women emphasized the need to increase the value of remittances, as they were based on cluster-level guidelines to cover food needs rather than all basic needs; when the money ran out, these women reported being exposed to violence or a risk of violence in their homes, which led some to state a preference for food rather than cash to reduce their unrealistic expectations regarding the transfers to be covered. In four of the study countries, women reported being harassed or fearing being harassed by their own community because not everyone had benefited from TMs. This problem was of particular concern when women were named beneficiaries of monetary intervention and was particularly evident in the case of female heads of household.
Related to the above-mentioned household and community-level risks associated with capacity women to access monetary intervention, study participants described the need to establish safe, secure, and women-friendly communication mechanisms.
As this study demonstrates, gender mainstreaming the design and implementation of TM from the beginning is a priority to promote gender sensitivity. Its inclusion can in turn support the strengthening of positive and sustainable gender roles and relationships and mitigate gender-related protection concerns for those affected by crisis. It further argues that the need for progress in the design and implementation of a person-centered and gender-sensitive monetary intervention remains
From the results of the study, a number of recommendations are formulated:
PHASE: EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS
Inclusion of Gender and Market Analysis in needs assessments: Links between market analysis and gender analysis should be established and included in all basic needs assessments; they should be regularly updated throughout the implementation schedule, even in protracted crises.
Gender-specific protection risk analysis for all genders: Constant analysis and reduction of identified risks for protection women and men and their sub-groups such as the elderly, youth, persons with disabilities and lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex groups (LGBTQI) are essential.
PHASE: PLANNING AND DESIGN
Participatory Approaches Signi icantly Addressing Gender: Women's Leadership in Humanitarian Decision-Making Should Influence TM Design – to Understand Decision-Making at the Household Level, Where the Power Resides in the community, as well as the role and influence of local governance structures.humanitarian should influence the design of s TM – to understand household decision-making power, where power resides in the community, and the role and influence of local governance structures.
Gender mainstreaming in the design of monetary intervention in Cash Plus: TMs' action to contribute to gender mainstreaming must be intentional and clearly linked to needs, gender and market analysis. Cash plus offers an interesting potential for a gender-sensitive monetary intervention, particularly for responding to unmet essential services (eg health care) and savings and loans.
Using gender markers without moderation: Gender markers should be systematically used to ensure that gender is taken into account from the beginning and is taken into account in evaluations to “verify the truth” of the results.
PHASE: IMPLEMENTATION AND FOLLOW-UP
Understanding and Mitigating the Risks of Gender-Based Protection: All Monetary Assistance must recognize the diversity of needs and capacities of different gender groups and their sub-groups. groups. This may involve the use of different mechanisms for different groups within a target population or the need to increase the number of payment points. Ongoing monitoring of the gendered aspects of TMs – particularly protection and safety – is an important element in achieving gender sensitivity.
Understanding Potential Negative Impacts on Gender Relationships of Transfer Values That Do not Respond for multiple needs: Transfers designed to cover a single outcome need to be associated with strong awareness within the community to better understand what the transfer might cover and to mitigate gender-related protection risks.
Awareness and information across all genres: Community awareness sessions – with women and men, separately and then together as needed – can help ensure a community-wide understanding of why some people, but not all, have been targeted by TM is recommended, in particular try to ensure that the targeted are neither endangered nor harassed.
Community communication and engagement that promotes gender equity and mitigates the risks of protecting women: The establishment of sufficiently secure feedback and bi-directional mechanisms to enable recipients of all genres and their sub-groups to use them should be included for all monetary interventions.
AT THE RESPONSE LEVEL AND AGENCY:
Gender Analysis and Institutional Response Message: Stakeholders Responsible for Monitoring and Conducting Evaluations and Analyzes Must Emphasize the Importance of Gender Analysis for effective and gender-responsive responses, especially for donors
Bring gender expertise into TM: Ensuring the e Gender experts, including gender-based violence (GBV) experts, have a good understanding of TMs and the potential advantages and disadvantages is an important part of this approach.
Training on TM aspects related to GBV Gender protection: There is a need for continuous and systematic training of agency staff on PEAS and GBV and how these aspects can be affected or influenced by cash transfers.