In a democracy, propaganda, political communication and manipulation are concepts that serve to characterize the circulation of political discourse between politicians and citizens, through mass media and with the aim of persuasion or imposition. meaningless. These terms, however, have a peculiarity: their uses in the scientific literature are not equivalent, somewhat in the manner of what can be observed in the speech of politicians or journalists.
political communication as a “democratic ideal of dialogue and exchange” (Delporte, 2007: 459) in works that emanate from the history of the media. Differentiation between political communication and propaganda is supported by two main criteria. The first is media pluralism and the free flow of information. From this point of view, propaganda becomes characteristic of totalitarian regimes or exceptional situations in democratic regimes, for example in the case of conflict (Bertho-Lavenir, 2000). The second criterion is the degree of consideration by the political issuer of the state of public opinion: “Political communication is first and foremost the search for a dialogue with public opinion, exchange to establish with it a contract based on trust.
Public communication accompanies the exercise of power . It allows the citizen to be informed of the action of the community, the measures decided and the services offered. It can also be behavioral (prevention) and promotional (public careers).
Public time is therefore not the same as commercial time: the public power presents a need to anticipate, prepare and accompany . It is therefore a question of accompanying on a daily basis in the long term.
Public communication is aimed at a citizen target and is carried out with the taxpayer’s money. This adds an additional responsibility with the proper use of the budget that must be justified.
the government must increase the number of speakers to communicate its action and legitimize it to the citizens.
The success of this long-term support mission requires an important social media presence. The audience gathered there and the mechanics at your disposal make it possible to set up an effective and continuous communication
Jakobson put forward six elements in the communication. 1) Issuer: intent produces the message or signs, but not necessarily its contents. It can be a chain of transmitters. 2) Receiver: either affective (all those involved) or targeted (specific addressee (s)). 3) Channel: auditory – visual – tactile – tasteful. Single or multiple: audiovisual. 4) Code: set of potentially usable signs, usually subdivided into subsets (paradigms). 5) Context: referent, what the message is about, what he is talking about. 6) Message: a particular set of signs chosen within one or more codes. Do not be confused with the information. To these six elements, are related six functions of the message. 1) Expressive: allows the emitter to express his attitude, his emotion, his affectivity (intonation, timbre …) 2) Conative: centered on the receiver. Intention of the issuer (order, question). Handling. 3) Phatique: contact function (“hello”, “hello …”). Used to establish communication. Conviviality, efficiency. 4) Referential: informative, refers to the referent. The question the message is about. 5) Poetic: rhetoric, highlights the message. 6) Metalinguistics: to clarify the forms of the languages, to make sure that one emits on the “same wavelength”.
Cybernetics, the art of governing (Plato), implies the following flows of communication: The best example is that of the ship and the rudder: each post, each role of sailor on a ship involves a flow of information to the holder of the rudder, and goes through the “captain”. Feedback – feedback on the effect of an act or decision – is critical. The organization of this feedback is the keystone of the decision-making building. This flow of information is present at every stage of political communication, vector of power.
The Haitian government is responsible for providing answers, defined by a clear political line, to all the issues that arise in Haiti. It is important to make citizens understand the role of each and the nature of the actions they undertake.
In addition to the government, each ministry must have a Facebook page or a dedicated Twitter account on which are evoked the reforms put in place, the news of elected officials as well as that of the country in the area of expertise of the ‘institution.
These accounts centralize all issues related to a single department and provide clarity and readability to the policy in place on a specific area.
Citizens who are more sensitive to a particular social issue can thus benefit from a first filter on government action by choosing to follow a single account or to like a single page that will communicate around issues of interest to them.
the tension between propaganda, communication and manipulation is revealing of the gap between the presupposition of a democratic ideal and its conditions of realization, but also of a confusion between democracy as a model, on the one hand, and as a complex political form , on the other hand.
” In a media time where information is always faster and changing, the spokesperson must allow political action to be part of the long term, and give everyone the means to understand the meaning ” .
“Promoting political information and information in general from trusted sources is crucial. Finally, acting for democracy in a systematic way, will help restore confidence in social networks ”
However, from the ruse of the fox to the sprawling action of the octopus, from the use of force to neuromarketing (subliminal images, …), the manipulation is based on an artifice that is usually limited in time.
Do not consider power from a legal, but technological point of view. Michel Foucault