Wednesday September 30, 2020 ((rezonodwes.com)) –
Education is one of the fundamental human rights. It is a right which aims at the full development of the human personality, it is protected and guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (art. 26) and the Haitian Constitution of 1987 (art.32, 32.1, 32.2, 32.3).
In this regard, Haiti has acceded to several international instruments relating to the right to education such as: the Dakar forum framework for action (April 2000) and the sustainable development goals (2015), Education for All (EFA , 2007), New York Congress in September 2015 and also the Incheon Declaration in South Korea the same year. Education is also a powerful agent of change, improves health and quality of life, contributes to social stability and is a driver of long-term economic growth. In addition to imparting knowledge, the other role of education is to forge the character and personality of children. The education of the latter from an early age has a great influence on their personality. Education helps cultivate the mindset of young people. It helps them prepare for the future. Therefore, ensuring access to education becomes essential. In this context, UNHCR (since 2011) strives to: (1) promote an effective legal environment for education; (2) economically improve viable access to education; (3) identify different options for financing education; (4) provide and support education in accessible services, taking into account various needs (formal and non-formal education); (5) provide scholarships for secondary and higher education; (6) increase the number of university scholarships and expand access to accredited distance education programs and; (5) support community schools.
Indeed, Haiti is the Caribbean country with the highest illiteracy rates. Even though the Haitian government has taken measures to: (1) ensure access to a comprehensive and universal education system by increasing public provision; (2) ensure active and effective governance of the education system; (3) Develop appropriate strategies to ensure free education for all by 2020; (3) ensure access for all children of basic technologies from an early age to news and information and communication in education and; (4) increase public investment in order to ensure a better basis for the development process. In addition, the various governments / ministers of education have developed the establishment of various organizations to reduce illiteracy (DGEA, ONEC, ONAAC, ONECA, ONEP, BNA) and the Haitian constitutions calling for free education ( 1801, 1811, 1816, 1843, 1867, 1874, 1987), Bernard reform (1979), National education and training plan (1997), Education and training working group (2010) the operational plan (2010-2015) and the Education and Training Plan (2017-2027).
However, none of these measures has been successfully implemented so far. On the contrary, the situation becomes the worst. Across the country, the non-public sector employs 88% of the national school population compared to 12% of the public sector. The public sector receives 22.02% of these students against 77.98% for the non-public sector (DPCE, 2011). In fact, 23% of graduate schools and high schools have less than 150 students compared to 52% in the private sector. In this sub-sector, there are 624,095 learners, including 313,932 girls, or (50.3%) (MENFP, 2017). Second, the lack of regulation and quality of education leads to high repetition and dropout rates. This alarming situation is largely due to the lack of qualification of teachers (two thirds of whom have not received any real training to teach), poor learning conditions (overcrowded classes also expensive school supplies) and the non-application of standards and standards for quality education. All this is to specify that in Haiti, the education situation is very uncomfortable at different levels: Quality, access, governance, internal and external efficiency (training-employment mismatch).
The rural environment is most strongly affected by this lack of pedagogical quality: 91% of schools operate without electricity, 65% without portable water. And 80% of children who drop out of school are “Overaged”. Only 68% of children from the poorest households attend school. Thus, Haiti is one of the countries with the lowest enrollment rate in the world: 76% at the primary level and only 22% at the secondary level. In addition, 85% of teachers are not qualified for primary education. About 500,000 children between the ages of 5 and 18 are out of school. During the crisis in Haiti (Popular Protest, COVID 19) the situation becomes worse.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on the Haitian education system. School closures have impacted not only students, teachers and families, but these regular closings have social consequences. For example, students and young graduates have doubts about their careers (know-how), psychosocial impacts, food insecurity, lack of health care, lack of access to electricity and the internet, childcare problem, etc. even if some governments, schools and universities adopt distance education, it remains a great challenge for us considering certain aspects: the school as a space for socialization, a lack of e-learning supplies for students and teachers, rotating timetable, student mental health during this period, maladjustment for the majority of students with special needs, the quality of the assessment. Therefore, the COVID-19 crisis is disproportionately affecting the most vulnerable, the poorest populations, the inequalities between private and public schools are increasing.
In addition, at home, learning opportunities are limited and their presence can weaken the parents' situation, forced to find sustainable care solutions or to compensate for the disappearance of school meals. Only some private schools have facilitated distance education during the COVID 19 pandemic. So far, 70% of public schools are closed, which means more than three million children have not been able to start or continue their education . Teachers in public high schools do not receive their salary. In contrast, the student body does not receive education. Since mid-August 2020, students of the State University of Haiti, primary and secondary school students have been carrying out weeks of protest to express their frustration with the Haitian government. As a result, losses of human capital could worsen and access to opportunities will be reduced. But, how long do we find sustainable and operational solutions? What about the future of future generations? Can we develop a legal framework justifying that education is no longer important for future generations? Are there plans of action in the field of education or is it not a priority of a small group to the detriment of the most vulnerable layers?
Recognizing that the protection of schools and access to education in emergencies must remain a key priority for the international community (UNICEF, UNESCO, UNHRC) and all member countries of the United Nations,
Affirming the Program of sustainable development by 2030 for quality education and reduction of inequalities – leaving no one behind and giving equal opportunities to all children in all countries,
Bearing in mind the objective of Sustainable Development 4 (SDG 4) of the 2030 Agenda which aims to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all,
Considering also that, in crisis situations humanitarian (COVID 19), social and polite tick, education, among other factors, could play an important role in contributing to the preparation and promotion of human capital, and as a tool for the sustainable development of all societies,
Emphasizing the Universal Declaration of human rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1951), the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of August 12, 1949, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities , and all relevant United Nations resolutions relating to the right to education in emergencies,
Welcoming the efforts made in the past by various bodies United Nations and non-governmental organizations,
Nothing with deep concern that COVID-19 is impacting the education of children and young people around the world, disrupting nearly 1.6 billion children and young people due to the total or partial closure of schools by governments in an attempt to contain the spread of the virus. This crisis caused the greatest disruption of school systems in world history, adding to the problems of access to education that previously existed in other countries,
Reaffirming Article 26 of the Declaration Universal Human Rights Convention of 1948, which stipulates that every child has the right of access to education, without discriminating on gender, skin color, cultures and others,
Recognizing the importance of safe and reliable access to quality education amid the pandemic,
Seeking comprehensive improvements in all aspects of human rights and local and national government commitments to provide inclusive education , eradicate the poverty, violence and discrimination faced by the most vulnerable children and young people, to support children's lifelong learning, take into account the needs of the poorest and most marginalized,
Taking into account the absence of laws and public policies to guarantee children adequate access to education during this global pandemic;
Reaffirming the follow-up to the results of the Millennium Summit on the right to Education in Emergencies (Benin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chile, Costa Rica, Georgia, Guatemala, Jordan, Nicaragua, Norway, Portugal and Qatar), 2010.
Considering all plans (the Haitian educational reform of 1979 , National Education and Training Plan 1997, operational plan 2010-2015, ten-year education and training plan, 2017-2027) which were developed by the Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training,
Also taking into account the operating situations of public and private schools, the philosophy of the Education for All program, the disparities, the inequalities between the urban and rural students, the lack of regulation and governance of the system. th Haitian concerning access to education,
We propose the following recommendations:
1 UNICEF, UNESCO and the CDH support all programs related to access to education through the world, to specifically address the gender needs of girls in emergencies (e.g. COVID 19), including their increased vulnerability to gender-based violence, learners with special needs;
2 Positively transforming schools public and private education: (i) Think about the academic program, we could encourage the promotion of sustainability, good educational governance, effective cohesion and promotion of human capital, confluence and respect at all levels of the education system; (ii) Develop new strategies that take into account the dimensions of access to education: measures of attention to diversity, adaptation to an inclusive system (example COVID 19 Pandemic), curriculum modifications, pedagogical training, knowledge of disability , knowledge of inclusion and integration of students.
3. Develop / strengthen and coordinate partnerships between governments, public and private education sectors: (i) Build at least one high school in each common, especially in the environment; (ii) Thinking about new perspectives on the learning environment, teaching and skills (iii) The education ministry, principals, teachers and principals play a central role in developing a Co-vision, quality supervision, hiring external specialists and designing a school map based on student needs as a very useful educational administration tool.
- Provide schools with technological equipment for the distance education: (i) digital platforms provide students with the opportunity to continue learning, participate and stay in touch with their friends; (ii) Help students know how they work, what to be aware of, and what appropriate behavior looks like on the platforms they use, such as video calling, web conferencing; (iii) Teaching and learning with asynchronous and synchronous platforms has significant advantages when these methods are combined into face-to-face teaching.
5. Define new strategies to ensure a permanent allocation of children in need (physically disabled) despite their challenges such as (dyslexia, cerebral palsy, autism, deaf, mute, etc.) in regular classes or in e-learning.
6.Cooperate and develop new policies for education special for adults and children who have learning difficulties due to their visual impairment, physical disability, social maladjustment…
- Support the efforts of developing countries to ensure that all children have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality, to eliminate gender imbalances and to redouble efforts to improve the education of girls es and continue to support the efforts of developing countries in the implementation of the Education for All (EFA) initiative, including with improved resources of all types through the Education for All initiative in support of country-led national education plans, and urges donors to honor their pledged contributions;
- Provide quality education in emergencies, gender-sensitive, learner-centered, rights, protective, adaptable, inclusive, participatory and reflecting the specific living conditions of children and young people and which takes due account, where appropriate, of their and cultural identity, knowing that quality education can promote tolerance and mutual understanding and respect for the human rights of others.
9.Support learning and knowledge sharing through open educational resources – materials in any format and medium that reside in the public domain or under an open license allowing free access, reuse, reuse, adaptation and redistribution by others. In addition, other countries and NGOs must provide children with tablet connectivity and appropriate downloaded content to support learning outside of school. In addition, each country should develop and provide zero-rated educational websites for each student and make educational applications available offline;
10. Encourage public-private educational partnerships to close the gap and to ensure that these skills remain a priority for all students, resilience must also be integrated into our education systems.
11.Promote the social campaign for all countries of the world that support the summons against the era of the pandemic, by due to our allies becoming the correct status to end the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic with any proposal such as washing hands, wearing a mask, maintaining social distancing around one meter for each person.  Develop media materials to be used to explain the strengthening of UNICEF's obligation to show the significance of the event that has changed due to the pandemic crisis ue. The media will bring together radio initiatives, television promotion, newspaper headlines and mass electronic installations.
All in all, if going to the school is in most countries a trivial act, it is still an impossible course for more than 57 million children. Nearly 250 million children leave school without mastering basic skills: namely reading, writing, counting. The concept of education for all (E.P.T.) is not without its ambiguities. There are countries which advocate a reduced vision of this educational policy. Sometimes we talk about access to basic education; others include lower secondary education; others include pre-primary education, while others include adult literacy. This multiplicity of conceptions makes any evaluation process difficult. The pragmatic definition that tends to prevail today is that of universal primary education. So far no indicator has shown this thought of universal education for all in Haiti. So, is it not a utopia?
Representative of Haiti to the UNICEF Council at the Model of United Nations (MUN), Indonesia (Jakarta, 2020)
Licensed in Educational Sciences at Quisqueya University
Certified in Leadership (4 years), Computer Science (2 years) & English (3 years) at HELP;
Master's in educational leadership and Management of Educational system, AIU-USA ( Outstanding)
Passionate about the training of Young people and Adults / Writer
Contacts: 3427 4085/4226 0468 /firstname.lastname@example.org dons19659002 margeIII-References inconnue19659041 OutreResolutions 46/182, 59/113 A and B, 63/241, 64/145, 64/146 and other General
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